Ernesta Swanepoel Environmental Law Specialist


e-Learning and Diploma courses

Acting as course moderator for online courses and diplomas offered by international institutes;

Advising course participants on a wide range of international environmental topics;
Advising course participants on legal drafting techniques for legal briefs, policy papers and negotiation briefs;

Evaluating submitted assignments and providing course participants with corrections and suggestions;

Topics include - International Legal Instruments, Techniques and Procedures in International Environmental Law, International Negotiations, European Union laws on Environment and Multilateral Environmental Agreements, UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol, Environment and Trade, Sustainable Development, Biological diversity, Right to Information and Environmental Impact Assessment, Hazardous Materials and Waste, Atmosphere, Freshwater and Soil, Law of the Polar Regions, Coastal Zone Management and Marine Environment.

Project support

Preparation and presentation of project formulation, project documents and reports;

Drafting of legal documents;

Project assistance in facilitating project meetings and workshops, liaising and negotiating with project partners.

Research and Drafting

Extensive research and drafting:

  • International Environmental Law:

    International environmental legal principles;
    Environmental law-making and policy administration by International Organisations;
    Environmental law at the global level and within regional structures;
    Environmental regimes for environmental management;
    The role of non-state actors in environmental law-making.
  • International Environmental Techniques and Procedures:

    The Environmental Impact Assessment procedure and the role of Public Participation in environmental decision-making;
    Regulatory and economic measures in environmental law implementation and compliance measures;
    Monitoring/ surveillance, environmental audits and reporting;
    Enforcement and remedial measures at the national and inter-state levels;
    Convention On Access To Information;
    Public Participation In Decision – Making And Access To Justice In Environmental Matters;
    Convention On Environmental Impact Assessment In A Transboundary Context – The Espoo Convention;
    Protocol On Strategic Environmental Assessment To The Convention On Environmental Impact Assessment In A Transboundary Context.
  • International Environmental Negotiations:

    The Negotiation process and the role of Negotiators;
    The process of conducting multilateral negotiations for developing soft law and hard law instruments;
    The distinct approaches and techniques required for conducting environmental negotiations.
  • Atmosphere:

    The Geneva Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Polution and its protocols;
    The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone layer;
    Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the Ozone layer and amendments to the Protocol ;
    United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol.
  • Biological Diversity:

    Convention of Biological Diversity;
    Global and Regional conservation instruments and instruments for the conservation and managements of particular species.
  • Environment and Trade:

    International trade principles defined by the GATT and WTO;
    Trade control measures : eco-labelling, certification, taxes, subsidies, and quotas, applicable through Multilateral Environmental Agreements;
    Interactions between the environment and trading system in a regional context.
  • Environmental law regimes of the Arctic and Antarctic Regions:

    The Antarctic Treaty;
    Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals;
    Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources;
    Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty;
    1991 Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy.
  • Hazardous Materials and Waste:

    Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements on Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal;
    Management of hazardous waste for protecting human health and natural ecosystems;
    Hazardous waste legislation, international agreements, regional agreements, and additional instruments;
    Obligations in the context of hazardous waste management such as information exchange, monitoring, and reporting.
  • Human Displacement Resulting from Climate Change:

    Issue of statelessness, mandates and definition;
    Current relevant international law and gaps;
    Sudden and slow onset factors and country based approaches.
  • Marine Environment:

    Law of the sea and marine environment protection and conservation;
    London Convention, Marpol Convention, Paris Convention;
    Global Programme of Action for the Marine Environment from Land – Based Activities (GPA);
    Liability for pollution damage;
    Marine living resources;
    Integrated Coastal Zone Management.

Study Material Development

Developing study material used as:

  • Online courses or face – to - face learning;
  • Support material for training workshops;
  • Support material for the better understanding and implementation of scientific and technical climate change adaptation and mitigation tools;
  • A manual to Climate Change Adaptation that guides participants through the various IPCC reports, the objectives and guiding principles of the UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol and its flexible mechanisms, NAPAs, the Nairobi Work Programme, Impacts and vulnerabilities of climate change on developing countries, adaptation measures and adaptation projects in developing countries, local adaptation coping techniques, analysis and guidance of adaptation data providers and tools for decision making, adaptation financing, technology transfer.


Conducting face – to- face workshops and training of foreign Nationals including youth learners.

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